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Plasma - LCD Explainations

Updated July 25th, 2008
The following are explanations I summarized on different technologies and technical descriptions from LG and NEC. See Plasma and LCD Comparision chart

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Above: Recommended screen size for a specified viewing distance (Coutesy of LG)

Plasma PDP (Plasma Display Panel)

PDP is an array of cells, known as pixels, which are comprised of 3 sub pixels, corresponding to the colors red, green, and blue.
Gas in a plasma state is used to react with phosphors in each sub-pixel to produce colored light (red, green, or blue).


Courtesy: Wikipedia

Advantages
High Contrast Ratios. With contrast ratios up to 10,000:1, LG plasma panels display the darkest blacks and brightest colours with pixel point accuracy, resulting in a picture that is rivaled only by real life itself.
See pdf on Demystifying Contrast Ratios

Color Satuaration. With Plasmas, each pixel contains red, green, and blue elements and thus the ability to reproduce every color in the spectrum. As such, colour information is accurately reproduced and colour satuaration resulting from pixel design closely represents what the eye would see in nature. Usually better for displaying Video.

Large size. LG Plasma screen sizes currently range from 42 to 71 inches and are all wall-mountable. The largest commercial available tube televisons max out at 36 inches but weight in over 200 pounds with a footprint that is measured in square feet, they are not recommended fior placement above the fireplace.

Even Light output. As each pixel is individually lit, the panel is uniformly bright across the entire viewing surface, eliminating the 'hot-banding' effect found on rear-projection televisions.

Panel Life. LG Plasma panels are rated to 60,000 hours. That's more than 24 years of normal viewing, 7hours a day, 365 days a year.

 

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

LCDs work in a manner simular to a window shutter. Liquid crystal molecules are sandwiched between two glass plates and mounted on a backlit panel. As an electrical charge is applied, the liquid crystals untwist, allowing specific colours of light to pass through. The location and intensity of light that is permitted to pass through the liquid crystal matrix creates crystal-clear, colourful image.


Courtesy: Wikipedia

Advantages

Size and Weight. Even our largest LCD panels are barely 7 inches thick. Compare that to a tube TV or a rear projector TV at the same screen size where the depth of the unit can be measured in feet. The weight also allows an LG LCD panel to be wall mounted anywhere in your office.

Image Quality. LCD TVs pack a lot of pixels per square inch of display giving them higher resolution than comparably sized TV. As each pixel is illuminated by a specific set of transistors in the screen, the image produced is crisp and detailed. Usually better with computer graphics.

Energy Consumption. LCD TV definitely hold the edge over tube TV and rear projection TVs. The huge tube in a CRT TV consumes most of the energy drawn by the unit. A comparably sized LCD will use just a fraction of the electricity.

Viewing comfort. The reduced glare on the screen's surface and the elimination of a typical ''refresh'' flicker found on a tube and rear projection TVs, can prevent your eyes from getting tired from extended use. A tube TV rescans the entire screen when it refreshes, whereas an LCD TV only changes the necessary pixels during a refresh.

Main differences between LCD and Plasma (PDP)

I will attempt to give an honest account on their differences. As a footnote: I do have a plasma at home and have sold many into many boardrooms and hospitality lounges, but recommend LCD for digital signage applications. The choice all depends on the application, where it's going to be installed, sources and budget. I will highlight in Bold where each seems to have an advantage (even if it's minor).

Image Retention:
With LCD you get less image retention when an image if left on screen for extended times (which will happen in Plasma). But newer PDP units have built-in prevention systems so it's less than an issue if you are carefull. Setting contrast to high, (to improve images in well lite rooms) will also invite image retention, since it forces the images to be partially lite at all times. Results in ghosting (what ever image that was on screen before). Also check Burn-in section below. Many sales reps will say there is no image retention in LCDs but reading manufacturers' operations manuels for LCD displays, warn you of the possibility.

Black Levels:
Black levels (or the accuracy of reproducing blacks)
are much closer (real) with PDP, but LCD's are getting closer. Due to this fact, contrast will be better reproducing exceptional TV signals. A LCD display has a backlight which shines through the lcd panels. The panels allow or block light depending on what is required to produce an image or a color. Most , if not all, LCD tv's tend to have difficulty going fully "black".  Blacks tend to have a very very dark grey.  This is especially true on no name units.

Colour reproduction:
PDP offer a higher colour reproduction (color gamut) capability than LCD.

Brightness:
LCD is brighter in daylight with less glare, so areas near windows would be better equipped with LCD.
If your room is very dark, then LCD is not you best choice, since LCD is a backlight display, it is very hard to lower the brightness of the unit. These bright images will create eye fatigue. At the same token, Plasma screens are very bright. 4 to 5 times brighter then an average tv.

Longevity related to brightness:
LCD TV will last as long as its backlight does - and those bulbs can sometimes be replaced! Since this is nothing more than light passing through a prismatic substrate, there is essentially nothing to wear out in an LCD monitor. However, one nasty little known fact about LCD technology is that as the backlight ages it can change colors slightly (think of florescent office lighting). When this occurs the white balance of the entire LCD will be thrown for a loop and the user will need to re-calibrate, or worse, try to replace the backlighting or ditch the unit altogether.
Plasma, on the other hand, utilizes slight electric currents to excite a combination of noble gases (i.e., argon, neon, xenon), which glow red, blue, and/or green. This is an essentially active phenomenon, so the phosphoric elements in plasma displays fade over time. Many manufacturers state a new half life of 60,000 hours. At half life, the phosphors in a plasma screen will glow half as brightly as they did when the set was new.

Motion artifacts:
PDP has better video playback, so motion compensation is more noticable on LCD (more noticeable in screens above 30 inches). Thus fast motion action in movies or sports will look better in PDP. Note: There are still some 2nd tier manufacturers whose plasma product displays some phosphor lag, a dragging from brights to darks. So stick to the top players please.

Resolution:
LCD tend to pack more pixel resolution per screen size as does PDP. When I talk about resolution I mean native screen resolution, not what it can scale to.

1080p:
PDP have a harder time displaying content in 1080p resolution, thereby making future plasmas more expensive. "Plasma is not going to be able to keep up because it's just too complex of a technology with the glass, the plasma structure and the driver electronics. There's a lot more electronics on the back of a plasma than there is on an LCD." says Gene Ornstead, senior LCD TV product manager at ViewSonic.

Viewing angle :
PDP used to have a wider viewing angle (160 degrees). The lower the angle meaning watching from the sides the image would fade. Note: Don't believe everything you read (especially from unreliable manufacturers), since specs since can state you see something (a low qualty image) at that angle, but in reality it's unwatchable.
Nec's LCD have vastly impoved offering true 178 degrees.

Glare:
Incoming light (or room light levels); If you have a lot of room light or windows, LCD may be your best choice. The plasma screen is highly reflective since it is a shiny glass, thus light bouncing off the screen. (LCD has less of the effect most probably due to their polarizing nature. In a room with a lot of light, the Plasma screen is harder to see). With reflections of fluorescent lighting in offices opt for LCD.

High altitude:
LCDs aren't affected by increases or decreases in air pressure. Their performance is consistent regardless of the altitude at which they're utilized. This is not the case for a plasma TV. The display element in plasma TVs is actually a glass substrate envelope with rare natural gases compressed therein. So, at high altitudes (6,500 feet and above), an air-pressure differential emerges, which causes plasma displays to emit a buzzing sound due to the lower air pressure. This noise can sound rather like the humming of an old neon sign. NEC has been effective in producing several plasma models that are rated to 9,500 feet. This is why airplanes use LCD in the back of the seats for moving viewing pleasure.

Audible noise:
The panel of the Plasma monitor is composed of extremely fine pixels and these pixels emit light according to received video signals. This principle may cause you to hear a buzz or electrical hum coming from the Plasma monitor. Also note that the rotation speed of the cooling fan motor increases when the ambient temperature of the Plasma monitor becomes high. You may hear the sound of the motor at that time. Due to these facts and that LCD generate less, heat they tend to be a lot more quiet.

Size versus budget:
LCD price tags for small size PC monitors have come down dramatically due to high volume and easier to produce. Large size LCD is a little more complicated, which reflects higher prices for LCD above 40 inchs (versus PDP) and even greater differences as the size increases. Until recently huge displays were only availbale in PDP, while limited choices are available in LCD. So overall PDP are more economical in larger sizes. Meanwhile, Plasma screens are not available below 37 inches

Power consumption:
LCD has a steady backlight, drawing the same power no matter whats on screen, thus the Liquid crystals require little power. Plasma varies depending on the brightness of the images (consumes less if the images are dark). PDP consumes more power
ex. 42 inch PDP from Samsung 265 watts versus their 40'' LCD at 205 watts.

Durability (Glass): PDP stand up better to accidental impact than LCD.

Life: Most people will increase the brightness on a plasma when in a well lit area, except it is directly related to the life of the plasma gas. The longer you leave on full blast (high) the shorter is the life of your plasma. (Thus twice as bright half as longevity). Both LCD and PDP have approx. the same life as of recent years, so it's less of an issue.

Conclusion: LCD is eye catching, slightly less noise and slightly more resolution (best for computer images and games). PDP have more natuaral colors, blacks are impressive and video playback have less image blur. This is why video (or television) usually looks better on Plasma. So it all depends on where your setting them up. I also recommend sticking to brand names, since some lesser known companies will also have image blurring, dead pixels and lack of color reproduction due to their lack of quality standards. Like the saying goes, you get what you paid for, but just remember, you may be regretting it for 10 years.

 

Specification explanations
Links from my comparison chart

 

NEC Model differences*1
• IT version includes VGA, DVI-D and 5-pin BNC connectors
• AV version includes all the IT features as well as an HDMI component, composite, S-video and audio in/out
• AVT, audio-visual-with-tuner version builds off of the IT and AV functionality with an ATSC HD tuner and an NTSC standard definition tuner, and has RF inputs that accept HD and SD TV signals

Bezel *2
The thickness of the walls or sides both top and bottomw and Left and Right will only have an influence if you were planning to put some monitors side by side to create a video wall look. Having a small bezel also has a more appealing look than the wide side we have at home.

Having a larger bezel on the bottom for side by side presentation is not a huge deal as shown with the Multeos series from NEC.

A larger bezel will be distracting and images will not line up correctly.

A small bezel will make everything perfect, as with the Information Display series from NEC

Resolution (Native) *2
Refers to the resolution at which a TV or monitor is designed to display images without conversion. Image signals higher or lower than a specified native resolution must be converted to display accurately. For example, a television with a native resolution of 1080i will need to upconvert 480p images to 1080i to display properly. CRT TVs can have multiple resolutions but flat panel TVs can only have one native resolution.
852 x 480 Recomended 640x480 60HZ for the PC mode (Std VGA).
1024 x 768
1366 x 768

Aspect ratio related to resolution (Native) *2b
Manufaturers will state a 16:9 aspect ratio even though the native resolution is not. Example of this is 1024x768. Divide 768H into 9= 85.33 x 16W = 1365.33. So 1024x768 is actually a 4:3 format, but will scale a 16:9 image into this space, thus squeezing the image (NEC calls this Advanced AccuBlend). Want true 16:9 then go with 1368x768 or 1920x1080.
Contrast Ratio *3
10,000:1 5000:1 1,100:1 In reference to computer monitors , the measurement of the difference in light intensity between the brightest white and the darkest black. Contrast ratio is often used in marketing computer monitors , where a high contrast ratio, such as 400:1, represents a better color representation (the better the information will appear against a darker background) on the monitor than a lower contrast ratio, such as 150:1.
See pdf on Demystifying Contrast Ratios


Courtesy: Toshiba


Courtesy: NEC & www.toastyx,com
In Plasmas NEC says the following: To reduce the likelihood of image retention from long-term
use: Lower the Brightness and Contrast levels as much as possible without impairing image readability. So contrast ratio takes a hit. Note: Certain manufacturers claim levels of 3 or 4000 to 1, That is a false rating and is achieved by using non standard measurement methods.

High Brightness *4
What does cd/m2 mean?

Candelas per meter squared , or cd/m², is a unit of measure that used to be called "nits." Broken down, candela , abbreviated as cd , is a term that originated in the days when candles were used in theaters. For our purposes, candelas per meter squared measures the light properties radiating from a one-meter-square surface, providing a technical frame of reference for the performance of a display's black level, peak brightness, grayscale and gamma readings. The higher the amount, the better, which will also permit you in lowering the brightness level, thus extending the life of the unit.
Black Levels

All displays produce some light in the form of a very dark-gray when asked to produce a black. This background light is added to all of the colors and intensities that the display is asked to produce. This washes out the dark grays and also the dark colors. For example, dark reds will instead appear as shades of pink. What's more, if the display isn't properly adjusted, the dark background glow will have a color tint instead of appearing neutral gray, and this will add a color cast to the entire lower end of the intensity scale—particularly noticeable in dark images. No display can produce a true black, so it's important to know just how close it can actually get. CRTs do extremely well, but the flat panels all struggle with black, though they do pretty well with peak brightness, so black level can be a great differentiator.
Response Time *5
8ms (LCD)
Response Time is an attribute that applies to LCD monitors. It translates to the amount of time it takes for a liquid crystal cell to go from active (black) to inactive (white) and back to active (black) again. It is measured in milliseconds (ms). Lower numbers mean faster transitions and therefore less visible image artifacts. Older monitors with long response times (+25-30 ms) would create a smear or blur pattern around moving objects, making them unacceptable for moving video. High response times can be annoying to a viewer depending on the type of data being displayed and how rapidly the image is changing or moving. However current LCDs monitors (16 ms) have improved to the point that this is rarely seen. Also note: the higher the brightness of the screen, the blurring in more apparent. But in the past LCD weren't anywhere near Plasma or CRT response time.


Courtesy: www.behardware.com

Viewing Angle *6
Wide angle range of vision

Compared to a regular TV which basically offers 180° as a viewing area, Flats screen panels origional offered a smaller viewing angle, (bad images off to the sides) compared to todays available 160° and even better 178° -

In this demonstration LCD on Left and Plasma on Right hand side
Image courtesy of Panasonic
This means that the display is clear and visible to viewers anywhere in the room who can see the screen. But at the same token, watching the LCD screen off to a side will also result in bad contract (ratio goes down), black levels goes up) often changing colors and colors desaturate. Images aren't as good as if you were in front. LCD may not be as good for viewing in high position areas, like a sports bar, since it will have the same effect as if you were off center.
NEC uses XtraView® technology provides for some of the widest-angle views in the industry

Color Temperature Control *7
Normal, Warm, Cool, user
The temperature is based on an absolute scale expressed in degrees Kelvin, or K. Each temperature produces a known spectrum that yields a unique color with specific chromaticity coordinates (a quantitative measure of color that we'll discuss further in Part II). As the temperature increases, the changing chromaticity coordinates trace out a black-body curve. Whites typically fall in the range from 5,000 K (a reddish-white) to 10,000 K (a bluish-white). You normally adjust the color temperature based on your viewing habits (normal light in the room). If you have windows (office) or neon lights, then whites will look white if you set for a high level (Cool light or 9300K). If viewing is done at night (or sports bar) then setting it for a lower temperature is more suitable. For multimedia, photography and television the standard color temperature is 6500 K, roughly the color of natural daylight. 5000 K is used in graphic arts because it corresponds to typical indoor lighting consisting of a mixture of incandescent lighting and sunlight.

Image Sticking Minimization *8
To reduce image burn-in (normally found with Plasma displays)
NEC

PLE: The brightness is decreased in order of Lock mode.
(the higher number is darker)
ORBITER: The screen image moves and is slightly
squeezed or expanded.
INVERSE: The screen image is displayed alternately
between positive image and negative image, or the screen
image is displayed full white.

LG
Anti-Burn in.
LG has addressed an issue sometimes associated with Plasma technology by developing four different types of processes to prevent or prevent burn-in on plasma teleivisions. ISM Normal, Pixel Orbits, White wash, Inversion
• ISM Normal
Should the PDP detect a static image on screen for 5 minutes, it will slowly and gradually bring down the level of luminosity to 50% to prevemt ant possible burn-in.
• White wash
White Wash
removes permanent images from the screen. Should the panel display uneven pixel wear, activation of the White Wash function for 15 or 30 minutes will eliminate the image. Note: An excessive
permanent image may be impossible to clear entirely with White Wash.
• Orbiter
Orbiter my help prevent ghost images (phosper lags). The image on the screen moves on a continual basis 4 to 5 pixels at a time without being noticeable, preventing a static image burn-in. However, it is best not to allow any fixed image to remain on the screen. To avoid a permanent image on the
screen, the image will move every 2 minutes: Right → Right → Left → Left →
Downside → Downside → Upside → Upside → Left → Left → Right → Right
→ Upside → Upside → Downside → Downside.
• Inversion
Inversion will automatically invert the Monitor panel color every 30 minutes.

A frozen still picture from a PC/video game displayed on the screen for prolonged periods will result in a ghost image remaining even when you change the image. Avoid allowing a fixed image to remain on the Monitor's screen for a long period of time.

Burn-in *9
Burn-in occurs in Plasmas when the light does not turn off after it was instructed to do so (high contrast) or leaving the same image for an extended amount of time (video games, station logos, frozen image). In normal TV viewing, this should not be a problem, since the images are constantly moving. However if you have a multi-screen display (from companies such as a Miranda, Zandar, Leitch, Evertz, Barco, etc..they provide borders to their TV screens, which if not replaced on a regular basis, will also create a burn-in of the border (same result on TV screens for security monitors, always shooting the same position and image (indoor parking lot, door entrance, etc) as soon as you move the camera, the old fixed imge will still be visable).

LCD's don't burn but has an other effect. They can exhibit something called persistence, where pixels get ''stuck''. This may look similar to burn-in, but it's reversible and not common.


DFW airport courtesy: Wikipedia

Also check out CNET's:
Plasma burn-in: Seven things you need to know

Aspect ratio Correction ARC *10

Picture Format

16:9 : Aspect ratio most commonly known as wide screen and is wider than the standard 4:3 aspect ratio. Also referred to as 1.78 aspect ratio (16/9). 16:9 supporters state that the wider picture corresponds much better to the human visual field than the almost square 4:3.

Aspect Ratio : A numerical expression of the relationship of width to height of a TV screen. 4:3 : This numerical sequence refers to the aspect ratio of the National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) TV screen, with "4" unit width corresponding to "3" unit height, proportionally, regardless of the actual size of the screen. 16:9 : This numerical sequence refers to the aspect ratio of wide screen DTV formats for all HDTV and some SDTV (Standard Definition) video. A "16" unit width corresponds to "9" unit height proportionally, regardless of the actual size of the screen. The widescreen 16:9 numerical sequence provides a viewing experience very similar to that of most film motion pictures. Sometimes aspect ratio is expressed as the result of the aspect ration division - 16:9 equals 1.78 (16 divided by 9).

The challenge these days is how to display regular TV on a 16:9 surface.

• 4:3
Choose 4:3 when you want to view a picture with an original 4:3 aspect ratio, with black bars appearing at both the left and right sides (Barn doors or Pillarbox).

It should be noted that some televisions "stretch" the 4:3 image to fill the screen. While this would remove the unsightly black bars, everyone on the screen would appear to be rather overweight!
Images courtesy of BigBandNetworks
• 16:9
Choose 16:9 when you want to adjust the picture horizontally, in a linear proportion to fill the entire screen.
• Horizon
Choose Horizon when you want to adjust the picture in a non-linear proportion, that is, more enlarged at both sides, to create a spectacular view.
• Zoom
- Choose Zoom when you want to view the picture without any alteration. However, the top and bottom portions of the picture will be cropped.

You can watch TV in various picture formats; 16:9, 14:9, 4:3,
ZOOM1, ZOOM2, and SPECTACLE.

Image courtesy of NEC Operations manuel

1) You can only select 16:9, 14:9, 4:3, ZOOM1, ZOOM2,
SPECTACLE in TV, AV1, AV2, AV3, and S-Video modes only.
2) You can select 16:9, 4:3 in Component, PC-RGB, HDMI, and
DTV mode only.


NOTE: A short term or permanent afterimage effect may remain on
the screen as a result of displaying an unmoving image, such as text
in a broadcasting name, or when using the 4:3 screen at the ARC
adjustment for a long period of time

- Caution: If a 4:3 fixed image is on the screen for a long time, it may remain visible.
- Set every aspect ratio for Video, Component 480i sources.
- Use 4:3 or 16:9 for other RGB(PC), HDMI(PC) sources.
- Horizon is not available for RGB (DTV), HDMI (DTV), and Component (DTV) sources.

Also check out:
CNET's quick guide to aspect ratio
NR (Noise Reduction) *11
You can select 3D NR or MPEG NR to reduce the picture noise which may appear on the screen while watching the set. Video noise that may not be noticable on a 20 inch TV will be more noticable on a large screen, so having a good algorithm to reduce image noise is a good thing. Just as a reference Algolith from Montreal actually makes a powerful MPEG noise reducer, for the ones who want only the best in home theatre set-ups called Mosquito, a 3D Mosquito Noise Reducer . So the problem is real.
Film Mode *12
3-2 pulldown
The process of converting 24-frame-per-second film to video by repeating one film frame as three fields, then the next film frame as two fields. Makes for betting movie viewing at home. NEC: Film mode delivers a smoother image for DVD movies by bypassing frame buffer
Auto Off *13
Yes If set to on and there is no input signal, the Monitor turns off automatically after 10 minutes.
Auto Power On *14
Yes If set-up with a remote control device using the RS-232
Key Lock *15
Yes The Monitor can be set up so that it can only be used with the remote control.
- This feature can be used to prevent unauthorized viewing by locking out the front panel controls.
Remote Control *16
IR Jack
Connecting an optional wired remote control to the Remote Control port on the Monitor.
TV Tuner*17
Commercial units do not have built-in tuners (TV channels),thus eliminating employees from watching television during work hours.
Video Tiling Capabilty *18
For a resolution of 1024x768 at 60 Hz (or lower), the
maximum recommended size for a viewing wall is 4
displays.
Side by Side *19

Care must be taken not to leave this position on too long since it will burn the image
Quick brightness control or Picture Mode *20
STANDARD: for viewing in a bright room
BRIGHT: brighter picture than STANDARD
CINEMA1, 2: for viewing in a dark room, good for movies
DEFAULT: factory default settings

Luminance Management
For phospher protection, provides auto-detection of static images and lowers the brightness to prevent image retention.

GAMMA *21
Select a display gamma for best picture quality.
2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4: The picture becomes darker as the
number increases.
S: Special gamma for certain types of movies. Raises
the dark parts and lowers the light parts of the image.
(S-Curve)

SVII-KIT – SpectraView Kit – *22

Requires: NEC NaViSet Administrator network software

Colorimeter and Software

Combining an ultra-sensitive NEC/GretagMacbeth iOne Display V2 co-branded colorimeter measurement sensor and sophisticated SpectraView II software. This easy-to-use calibration and profiling solution is perfect for color-critical applications such as computer graphics, digital animation, medical imaging, pre-press production and film, video and photo editing studios.
  • Calibrates and profiles LCD and CRT displays
  • Provides true "one button" color management for DDC/CI compliant monitors
  • Measures ambient light

SpectraView II integrates with the NEC NaViSet Administrator network software (available separately from your NEC representative.) to provide remote network access and monitoring of display monitors. NaViSet Administrator is able to read, display, and log the current calibration settings and status of displays on a LAN. This feature is particularly useful for large installations where central monitoring and asset management is needed.

PC Resolutions *23
Computer Signal Formats (normally with a RGB connector)
VGA normally supported 640 x 480 resolution. In text mode , VGA systems provide a resolution of 720 by 400 pixels . In graphics mode , the resolution is either 640 by 480 (with 16 colors) or 320 by 200 (with 256 colors). The total palette of colors is 262,144.
SVGA supports 800 x 600 resolution, or 480,000 pixels . One SVGA system might display only 256 simultaneous colors while another displays the entire palette of 16 million colors.
XVGA 1024 by 768 pixels 256 colors (IBM 8514)
XGA 1024 by 768 pixels , supports 65 thousand simultaneous colors.
WXGA : A video graphics resolution of 1366x768 pixels.
SXGA 1280 x 1024 resolution , or approximately 1.3 million pixels .
UXGA 1600 x 1200 resolution , or approximately 1.9 million pixels .
WUXGA Widescreen version of UXGA called WUXGA with a resolution of 1920x1200
QXGA : A video graphics resolution of 2048x1536 pixels.
More definitions http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UXGA

Output Resolution
NTSC, VGA, SVGA, XVGA, SXGA
Line Doubler *24
A device, or circuit in a device, which converts interlaced video to progressive scan video. Interlaced pictures are painted in two passes. Every other line is painted in the first pass and the alternate lines are painted on the second pass. A line doubler, aka deinterlacer, creates a complete picture, filling in all of the lines, for each scan. More lines results in a better picture.
Resolution Capabilities
Internal scan conversion WVGA Supports up to XGA

High Definition *25

(RGB / HDMI-DTV )

EDTV : EDTV stands for Enhanced Definition Television, which is an industry recognized form of DTV. The EDTV format is essentially 480 lines of resolution in progressive scanning, or 480p (the "p" stands for progressive scanning). The complete Digital TV standard consists of no less than 18 different picture formats, but only three formats are commonly used - HDTV, EDTV and SDTV.

1024x768p

720x480 SDTV 480P
480p : 480 lines of progressive video (480 lines per frame). 480p60 refers to 60 frames per second; 480p30 refers to 30 frames per second; and 480p24 refers to 24 frames per second (film source). Usually refers to 720x480 (or 704x480) resolution.

1280x720 HDTV 720P
720p : 720 lines of progressive video (720 lines per frame). Higher resolution than standard DVD (480i or 480p). Usually refers to 1280x720 resolution in 1.78 aspect ratio.

1920x1080 HDTV 1080I
1080i : This is 1080 lines of interlaced video (540 lines per field). Two fields, interlaced provides a full picture (frame). Usually refers to 1920x1080i resolution in 1.78 (16:9) aspect ratio.

1080p : 1080 lines of progressive video (1080 lines per frame). Usually refers to 1920x1080 resolution in 1.78 aspect ratio. It provides for true progressive scan images resulting in the upmost resolution.

Composite Video Out (Loop)*26
Video & Audio only.
The set has a special signal output capability which allows you to
hook up a second set. NOTE
• Component, RGB, HDMI input sources cannot be used for Monitor output.
S-Video *27
S-Video
: A baseband video connection that keeps the brightness (Y) and color (C) parts of the video signal separated. A multi-pin connector, sometimes, called a Y/C plug. This reduces dot crawl on edges and offer a cleaner image than using the composite feed, but for long distances requires separate cables (Y) & (C) of equal length to be run and then recombined at both ends. Done it many times for major installs.

Do not connect to both Video and SVideo
at the same time. In the event that you connect both Video and the S-Video cables, only the S-Video will work.

Component In *28
Component Video :

A direct analog video connector that separates three different parts of the video signal, a brightness signal and two color-difference signals, usually with RCA-type connectors, color-coded red, green, and blue. Better than S-Video, composite, or RF-modulated video signal in the analog domain. May be labeled YPbPr, YCbCr, Y B-Y -Y, or YUV. Used to connect high bandwidth signals from digital sources, DVD, STB, D-VCR, to a Digital TV. Technically, it can be used to describe any video signal that is broken into components.

DVI In *29
DVI
: The "digital video interface" standard developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). DVI may be a replacement for analog VGA monitor interface as well as standard component video. The DVI signal is actually digital component video, and has the same performance as standard component video. Sometimes the DVI interface includes HDCP - High-Definition Copy Protection, which prohibits all ability to record or copy the content. Limited to 30 feet.


HDMI *30
High Definition Multimedia Interface

HDMI
: High Definition Multimedia Interface is a new connector that combines DVI signals, and digital audio into one small connector, allowing for simple and easy connections between a source device and a display. HDMI is somewhat backward compatible with DVI, by using a convertor plug. HDMI often also includes HDCP copy protection.
HDMI In *8 for HD Video input
Set of digital video standards for transmitting video and audio together and also component remote control signals over wires between components such as between DVD player and TV set at distances up to about 30 feet. The video data formats are the same as for DVI, including for ATSC HDTV transmission, but not all of the TV video formats and none of the PC video formats are included in the standard. The plug and jack assembly is about 3/4 inch by 3/8 inch. This widely accepted HDTV connection uses a DVI interface which also carries the HDCP (high definition content protection) copy protection and multichannel audio. Using a Gefen ''ex•tend•it'' ($600.00 cdn) DVI CAT-5 Extender extends your DVI or HDMI display up to 150'  from your HDTV DVI or HDMI source. Also saves in cabling since you use CAT5 cable.
RGB Out (Loop) *31 (15 pin) 1 Providing an output locally so you could plug in a second display.
Setup External RS-232 *32
Connect the RS-232C input jack to an external control device (such as a computer or an A/V control system)
and control the Monitor’s functions externally.
Variable Audio Out *33
Varible Output : An audio output adjustable through the volume control.
VESA Mount *34
An industry standard for mounting devices. Many mounting standards exit and LG uses the 800 x 400 to easily mount their units (except for the 50 & 60 inch). They are predetermined placement for the screw attachements.
Optional Ceiling Mount *35
Peerless, as well as other manufacturers offer ceiling mounts for LG units. I personally use Peerless for their reliability, theft proof and cable management.
RoHS compliance *36
RoHS compliance ensures the displays are free of hex-chrome, cadmium, PBDE and PBB, with reduced mercury and lead

Life expectancy (or MTBF) hours *37
60,000 MTBF

This is a rating after how many hours it takes to get to half it's origional brightness. This is a gradual proceess and chances you won't notice it. They are still viewable after these amounts of hours. Best you get a bright unit, and bring down the brightness in the first place.

LCD's have a life of 60,000 hours and the backlight will have to be replaced. It is not cost effective to replace it. If normal viewing hours is 6 hours a day, you will reach 60,000 hours in 27 years. If it lasts that long, it's time for the new model.